Background: Family history information is important to assess the risk of inherited medical conditions. Natural language processing has the potential to extract this information from unstructured free-text notes to improve patient care and decision making. We describe the end-to-end information extraction system the Medical University of South Carolina team developed when participating in the 2019 National Natural Language Processing Clinical Challenge (n2c2)/Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) shared task.
Objective: This task involves identifying mentions of family members and observations in electronic health record text notes and recognizing the 2 types of relations (family member-living status relations and family member-observation relations). Our system aims to achieve a high level of performance by integrating heuristics and advanced information extraction methods. Our efforts also include improving the performance of 2 subtasks by exploiting additional labeled data and clinical text-based embedding models.
Methods: We present a hybrid method that combines machine learning and rule-based approaches. We implemented an end-to-end system with multiple information extraction and attribute classification components. For entity identification, we trained bidirectional long short-term memory deep learning models. These models incorporated static word embeddings and context-dependent embeddings. We created a voting ensemble that combined the predictions of all individual models. For relation extraction, we trained 2 relation extraction models. The first model determined the living status of each family member. The second model identified observations associated with each family member. We implemented online gradient descent models to extract related entity pairs. As part of postchallenge efforts, we used the BioCreative/OHNLP 2018 corpus and trained new models with the union of these 2 datasets. We also pretrained language models using clinical notes from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) clinical database.
Results: The voting ensemble achieved better performance than individual classifiers. In the entity identification task, our top-performing system reached a precision of 78.90% and a recall of 83.84%. Our natural language processing system for entity identification took 3rd place out of 17 teams in the challenge. We ranked 4th out of 9 teams in the relation extraction task. Our system substantially benefited from the combination of the 2 datasets. Compared to our official submission with F1 scores of 81.30% and 64.94% for entity identification and relation extraction, respectively, the revised system yielded significantly better performance (P<.05) with F1 scores of 86.02% and 72.48%, respectively.
Conclusions: We demonstrated that a hybrid model could be used to successfully extract family history information recorded in unstructured free-text notes. In this study, our approach to entity identification as a sequence labeling problem produced satisfactory results. Our postchallenge efforts significantly improved performance by leveraging additional labeled data and using word vector representations learned from large collections of clinical notes.
Family history (FH) information included in the electronic health record (EHR) is important to assess the risk of inherited medical conditions. For certain diseases such as breast cancer [, ] and colorectal cancer [ , ], FH is an important risk factor. FH information has been recorded in both structured and narrative free text, but often documented only in the latter. Polubriaginof et al [ ] reported that free-text notes contained more comprehensive information than structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to extract this information from unstructured free-text notes to improve patient care and decision making.
This manuscript describes the end-to-end information extraction (IE) system the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) team developed when participating in the 2019 National Natural Language Processing Clinical Challenge (n2c2)/Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) track on FH extraction . This shared task is built on the BioCreative/OHNLP 2018 FH extraction task [ ]. It involves (1) identifying mentions of family members and observations in EHR text notes and (2) recognizing the relations between family members, observations, and living status.
Entity identification and relation extraction are often considered subtasks of IE. The semantic types of concepts of interest have been defined for different target tasks. Named entity recognition (NER) was introduced in the sixth of a series of Message Understanding Conferences  and Automatic Content Extraction programs [ ]. The goal of NER is to extract and classify proper named or specialized entities into predefined categories [ ]. Relation extraction deals with a pair of concepts [ ] (ie, binary relations) or higher-order relations, which are n-ary relations among n typed entities [ ]. It aims to determine whether entities are in a relation and how they are semantically related. Medical concept extraction is closely related to our target task and has advanced from the general text NER by sharing the algorithms and features. It has aimed to extract medical information such as disease diagnoses, medications, laboratory data, and appliances from EHR text notes [ - ].
Several studies focusing on FH information have been reported. Goryachev et al  created a rule-based system for identifying family members and their related diagnoses. They observed that FH was often mentioned intermixed with the patient's own medical history, making this task challenging. Bill et al [ ] developed an NLP system for extracting FH information from History and Physical notes. Their NLP pipeline identified family member and observation entities, relations between them, and attributes such as vital status and age. FH information extraction was the focus of the BioCreative/OHNLP 2018 task [ ]. The best performance on this shared task was achieved by Shi et al [ ] with F1 scores of 89.01% on subtask 1 and 63.59% on subtask 2. They proposed joint modeling of entities and relations by 2 stacked neural networks with shared parameters.
The goal of this study was to extract the health information of patients and their relatives from unstructured EHR notes. Our system aims to achieve a high level of performance in this task by integrating heuristics and advanced information extraction methods. We approach entity identification as a sequence labeling problem. We applied a bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM)  algorithm, a widely used structured prediction algorithm. The input of the LSTM network included vector representations generated by Embeddings from Language Models (ELMo) [ ] contextual embeddings. We hypothesized that applying the LSTM to this problem can yield accurate FH information extraction. Our voting ensemble is created based on the fact that the LSTM algorithm is not deterministic; that is, every time the model is trained, the results vary. The proposed ensemble can provide efficient and convenient integration of individual LSTM models. For relation extraction, we implemented online gradient descent (OGD) [ ] models with lexical features.
This study's contribution also includes improved performance on both subtasks by exploiting additional labeled data and clinical text–based embedding models. We added other labeled data used in the previous shared task to the training set. We retrained the classifier using a larger set of training data. We also used word embeddings pretrained with large quantities of clinical text. Our experimental results show that these efforts significantly improve the performance of both subtasks, especially relation extraction.
The following sections describe the details of the 2 subtasks and discuss IE models developed to recognize the entities and their relations from EHRs. We then present the experimental results and investigate the performance improvements resulting from our postchallenge efforts.
Our research focuses on the extraction of mentions of family members and related information recorded in EHR text notes. The first subtask, entity identification, involves detecting 2 types of entities: family members and observations. Only relatives in the first degree (eg, ‘Mother’ and ‘Son’) and second degree (eg, ‘Grandparent’ and ‘Cousin’) are annotated . Other relatives such as ‘Spouse’ and ‘Nephew’ are excluded. The normalized name and the side of family are annotated as attributes of each family member. Observation (disease) entities in the family history are also annotated. The second subtask, relation extraction, is to determine the existence of relations between family members and other information (ie, living status or observation). Two types of relations were therefore annotated: family member-living status and family member-observation. For relations between a family member and living status, the score representing the health status of the family member is annotated. Negation information is annotated to indicate whether the observation is negated in the relation between a family member and the associated observation.
Clinical text notes representing patient FH information were selected from the Mayo Employee and Community Health cohort . shows the number of annotated entities and relations in the training set. The training set includes 99 clinical notes with 801 family member and 978 observation entities. Living status entities are less common and account for about half of the number of family members. For the observation category, the number of relations is less than the number of entities. This means that some observations are not related to any family member.
aN/A: not applicable because relations between family members were not annotated.
Entity Identification Methods
We addressed entity identification with rule-based and machine learning–based approaches. We describe each approach and present a voting ensemble–based method.
Rule-Based System for Family Member Entities
Our rule-based system for family member entity recognition uses a sliding window with simple term matching and part-of-speech filtering. We used NLTK  (a Python Natural Language Toolkit) to split each note into sentences and then each sentence into tokens annotated with part-of-speech tags. Each token matching a relevant family member term (eg, “daughter”, “son”, or “child”) that was also tagged as a noun (ie, NN, NNP, or NNS) was flagged as a valid mention.
Machine Learning–Based Models
We trained sequence labeling models using Bi-LSTM [, ] to assign a semantic category label to each word in a sequence. Bi-LSTM can combine both forward and backward information of each word.
For this sequence labelling problem, we tokenized the input text. The training data were annotated with BIO token tags (B: beginning, I: inside, or O: outside of an entity; eg, “B-observation” for a token at the beginning of an observation mention). We also included the outputs of the 2 external resources (the 2010 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside [i2b2]  and MetaMapLite [ ]) described in the following paragraphs as inputs to the LSTM network. Similar to the word token, the prediction from each external resource was also encoded with BIO tags.
First, we used the medical concept extraction model trained with the 2010 i2b2 challenge data . The training set containing 349 text documents was used to create a Bi-LSTM model that identified medical problem, treatment, and test concepts from the FH extraction task corpus. We also used MetaMapLite [ ] (2019 AA version) to identify Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus concept mentions along with their semantic type. We aligned MetaMap outputs with the entity types of subtask 1 to choose the relevant semantic types. lists the 10 most frequently aligned UMLS semantic types used by MetaMap for observation entity extraction. The first and second columns display semantic type names and abbreviations. The third column shows the number of observation entities from the training corpus aligned with each semantic type. The last column shows the mapping probability for each semantic type and observation category. For instance, “Disease or Syndrome” was mapped to the observation category with a probability of 79.89%. We used the training data to automatically create these heuristics. We used all (21) semantic types with a mapping probability of over 70%. The output semantic type was converted to a family member or observation entity, such as B-family_member or I‑observation.
Our Bi-LSTM model incorporated 2 embedding layers for pretrained word embeddings. We used dependency-based embeddings by Komninos and Manandhar  as static word embeddings. These embeddings were trained using the structure of dependency graphs. They were built with the English Wikipedia Dump of August 2015. As context-dependent embeddings, we used the ELMo [ ] model trained on a dataset of 5.5 billion tokens from Wikipedia and the news crawl corpus. The output of each external resource (the 2010 i2b2 and MetaMapLite) was represented as a one-hot vector and mapped to a 10-dimensional embedding. The concatenation of these embeddings (2 pretrained embeddings and 2 one-hot vectors) was fed to the LSTM layer.
To fine-tune the parameters of LSTM models, we randomly selected 10 documents from the training set (about 10% of the training set) as held-out data. We tuned the hyperparameters to maximize the F1 score with the held-out data. After experimenting with different dropout  rates of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%, the models were trained using the Nadam [ ] optimizer for 30 epochs with a dropout rate of 50%.
|Semantic type name||Abbreviation||Count||Probability, %|
|Disease or syndrome||dsyn||433||79.89|
|Mental or behavioral dysfunction||mobd||59||74.68|
|Sign or symptom||sosy||28||70.00|
We trained 10 different Bi-LSTM models that use the same hyperparameters but differ in random weight initialization and shuffling of training data. Then, we created a voting ensemble method that combined the predictions of all Bi-LSTM trials. Although these LSTM models were trained with the same hyperparameters, we hypothesized that they can be contributory to the voting ensemble in terms of diversity. Reimers and Gurevych  showed that nondeterministic LSTMs can even lead to statistically significant differences between multiple runs.
The voting ensemble collected candidate entities that received more votes than the voting threshold. When there were overlapping text spans on 2 different entities, the entity with more votes was selected. For overlapping entities with the same vote count, the one produced by the higher-ranking model was selected. To determine the ranking of 10 individual models, we measured how each model agreed with the other 9 models. Rankings were based on F1 scores measured with other models. The higher the average F1 score, the higher the model ranking.
Heuristic Rules for Family Member Attributes
We assigned each family member entity a normalized form using a simple dictionary-based mapping. For example, a family member with the text “his dad” was assigned ‘Father.’ We changed the text to lower case and removed the numeric values (eg, “three uncles” becomes 'Uncle'). We also looked at the preceding words to search for another family member term that modified the target entity. When such a term was found, normalization was performed taking it into account. For example, in the phrase “mother has sister,” the family member ‘sister’ was normalized to ‘Aunt.’
Our rule-based system looked at words in sentences near the family member and considered the degree of relatives to determine the family side. For each family member who was not a first-degree relative, the side of family (ie, ‘Paternal’ or ‘Maternal’) was assigned. For each label, we compiled the list of cue words indicating the side of family. For example, the cues for Paternal included ‘paternal,’ ‘patient's father,’ ‘father had,’ and ‘paternal family history.’ First, we searched for cue words within the entity term itself. If no cue word was found, the search was expanded to sentence boundaries.
Relation Extraction Methods
Subtask 2 aimed to identify related pairs of 3 entity types: family members, observations, and living status. Two types of relation exist between the 2 entities: family member-living status relations and family member-observation relations. We trained 2 relation extraction models. The first model determined the living status of each family member. The second model identified observations associated with each family member.
For 2 binary-class models, we defined lexical features: words contained in each concept, 7 preceding and 7 following words for each concept, and the words between the 2 concepts. We also created 1 feature to measure the number of family member entities appearing between the pair. We created 2 binary-class OGD (also called stochastic gradient descent)  classifiers using the Vowpal Wabbit [ ] online learning library. This online learning algorithm is getting more attention recently in large-scale machine learning problems. Using the default hyperparameters, each model was trained for 100 iterations.
Training examples included positive examples (participating in a relation) and negative examples (pairs of entities that are not related to each other). Pairs of reference standard entities were used to train the classifiers. Entity pairs identified by the aforementioned voting ensemble were used as test examples. We filtered out the negative examples when there was a carriage return character (‘\n’) between the pair.
For living status relations, once we extracted phrases that represent the living status of each family member, we assigned scores for the alive and healthy attributes. We compiled not alive (ie, dead) and healthy cues from the training data and calculated the score using the text phrase of each living status entity. If our algorithm detected any trigger phrase of not alive (eg, “deceased,” “passed away,” and “no longer living”), the algorithm assigned a score of 0. Otherwise, if the family member was in good health (eg, “good general health,” “healthy,” and “alive and well”), the algorithm assigned a score of 4. If no cues of not alive or healthy were found, a score of 2 was assigned.
For each observation entity in the relation, we needed to determine whether it was negated or not. We used FastContext , an efficient and scalable Java implementation of the ConText algorithm [ ] with customized trigger terms. After manually analyzing the examples from the training data, we added new trigger terms such as “not aware of,” “not significant,” and “no family history of.” For this binary classification, the algorithm detected the negated contextual attribute in the sentence for the observation entity and assigned 1 of 2 values: Negated or Non_Negated.
In summary, we built an end-to-end system with multiple IE and attribute classification components, as shown in. The architecture includes a voting ensemble with Bi-LSTM models that accept the outputs of the MetaMap and 2010 concept models, an OGD model that extracts relations between entities, and postprocessing modules for family side, name normalization, living status, and negation classification.
Improvements to Both Subtasks After the Shared Task Challenge
This subsection describes further improvements to both entity identification and relation extraction as postchallenge efforts. We made 2 major changes in the pipeline system. The first revision was the addition of labeled examples to the training data. We used another text collection created for the 2018 BioCreative/OHNLP shared task  to build new Bi-LSTM and OGD models. The combined dataset included the original 99 clinical notes and 50 text files used in the 2018 BioCreative/OHNLP test set. Extending from the previous models used for submission to the shared task, we investigated how well the new model trained with the union of 2 datasets performed. We trained the new models by reusing the classifier configuration optimized with the 2019 training data.
Next, we used word embeddings trained with clinical text to construct vector representations of words. We pretrained 2 language models. One was trained using fastText  as static word embeddings, and the other was trained using ELMo [ ] contextual embeddings. We used all clinical notes from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) clinical database (version 1.4) [ ]. We pretrained ELMo embeddings by following the default hyperparameter setting used for other publicly available ELMo models [ ]. Pretraining lasted about 3 months, and it was manually stopped after 1,073,750 iterations. This process was performed on a NVIDIA Tesla P4 GPU.
From these pretrained language models, we generated word vectors as input features. Then, we created new Bi-LSTM models for entity identification. As with the previous models, these models were trained for 30 epochs with 50% dropout to the recurrent units. Naturally, the predictions of these new Bi-LSTM models were used to create test instances that paired the 2 entities for relation extraction. In the next section, we present the experimental results from our official submission and revised systems.
The input for subtask 1 (entity identification) was clinical text notes. The entity annotation file for subtask 1 contains family member and observation entities, one entity per line. The family side is provided for each family member entity. For subtask 2 (relation extraction), entity annotations were additionally used as input. The relation annotation file for task 2 contains 2 entities with their relation, 1 relation per line. Each living status relation has a score to represent living status. In each observation relation, the negation of the observation entity was identified.
We measured recall, precision, and F1 score (harmonic mean of recall and precision with equal weight). We used the 2019 n2c2/OHNLP shared task  evaluation script to calculate performance measures. To be considered a true positive, the entity attributes must also match. For observation entities, a match was counted if the reference annotation contained 1 or more words in common with the system-detected concept.
Results for the 2019 n2c2/OHNLP Shared Task
The 2019 n2c2/OHNLP shared task corpus consisting of a test set of 117 clinical notes was used for the evaluation. First, we present the results generated by systems implemented for the 2019 n2c2/OHNLP shared task submission.
shows the microaveraged overall precision, recall, and F1 score for each of our submissions. The following 3 systems were submitted for subtask 1: System 1.1 was a rule-based system for collecting family member entities and a voting ensemble with a voting threshold of 5 for extracting observation entities, system 1.2 was a voting ensemble consisting of 10 trials with a voting threshold of 5 for extracting family member and observation entities, and system 1.3 was a voting ensemble with a voting threshold of 6. Among them, system 1.2 achieved the highest F1 score, 81.30%, in subtask 1.
|System||Precision score||Recall score||F1 score|
|Subtask 1 (entity)|
|Subtask 2 (relation)|
Similarly, we submitted 3 systems for subtask 2: System 2.1 was an OGD model with input pairs generated from predictions of the voting ensemble with a voting threshold of 4, system 2.2 was an OGD model with outputs from system 1.2, and system 2.3 was an OGD model with outputs from system 1.3. System 2.1 achieved a higher F1 score than the others. The range of vote thresholds for task submission was selected after experimenting with values from 1 to 10 on the validation set. The highest F1 score was obtained in subtask 2 with a voting threshold of 5 on the validation set.
Improved Results After the Shared Task
We report the results of further improvements for both subtasks as described earlier. The contributions of features or data are shown in. Systems from rows 1 to 3 were developed for the 2019 n2c2/OHNLP challenge, and rows 4 and 5 were postchallenge efforts.
|System||Precision score||Recall score||F1 score|
|Subtask 1 (entity)|
|(2) + MetaMap, i2b2a 2010||78.87||84.34||81.48|
|(3) + voting||78.90||83.84||81.30|
|(4) + 2018 data (postchallenge)||83.63||86.69||85.13|
|(5) + MIMICb embeddings (postchallenge, [2018 + 2019]mim)||84.83||87.24||86.02|
|Subtask 2 (relation)|
|(2) + MetaMap, i2b2 2010||66.34||61.24||63.66|
|(3) + voting||66.37||62.78||64.53|
|(4) + 2018 data (postchallenge)||72.15||70.79||71.46|
|(5) + MIMIC embeddings (postchallenge, [2018 + 2019]mim)||73.27||71.70||72.48|
ai2b2: Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside.
bMIMIC: Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care.
As a baseline, only sequences of word tokens were used as input to train the Bi-LSTM models (row 1). The system was enhanced with the output of MetaMapLite  and the 2010 i2b2 [ ] concept model as inputs (row 2). For rows 1 and 2, we report the average value between the 10 trials of each Bi-LSTM model. From row 3, the results of applying the voting ensemble are displayed. For comparison, we report results with a voting threshold of 5. Row 4 shows a further performance improvement when the 2018 BioCreative/OHNLP shared task [ ] data were added. This additional training example achieved substantial performance improvements in both subtasks. Compared to the submission for the challenge (row 3), the recall increased by 8.01% (70.79%-62.78%) in subtask 2. MIMIC embeddings (row 5) allowed for an improvement over general text embeddings. They led to F1 scores of 86.02% and 72.48% for subtask 1 and subtask 2, respectively. We used a chi‑squared test to measure statistical significance. The significance level was set to .05. The performance of the full-featured system, called (2018 + 2019)mim, (row 5) was significantly better than other systems with P values <.001 except the system with the 2018 BioCreative/OHNLP shared task data (row 4).
displays the precision, recall, and F1 scores of relation categories produced by the (2018 + 2019)mim system. F1 scores for living status relations were 84.62% and 74.72% for subtask 1 and subtask 2, respectively. It was more challenging to determine whether the pair of family member and observation was related. For observation relations, the F1 score was 71.79%, which was lower than for living status relations. A manual analysis of labeled examples from the training set revealed that distant pairs of family member and observation appeared more often than living status entities. In addition, there were more unrelated entity pairs (ie, negative examples) because many observation entities were not involved in the relation.
|System||Precision score||Recall score||F1 score|
|Subtask 1 (entity)|
|Subtask 2 (relation)|
The experimental results show that our end-to-end pipeline system substantially benefited from the combination of the 2 datasets. Another finding is that a voting ensemble could achieve better performance than individual classifiers. This section analyzes the improvements resulting from the voting ensemble method. We also describe the detailed results of attribute classification.
Voting Ensemble Analysis
We analyzed the performance of the voting ensemble at each voting threshold.shows the results of the voting ensembles with 5 trials of the (2018 + 2019)mim system. The graphs on the left and right represent the results of subtask 1 and subtask 2, respectively. The y-axis scale of each graph does not start at zero to focus on the value ranges of interest. The results with voting thresholds ranging from 1 to 10 are presented. The curves show that as the threshold gets higher, precision increases but recall simultaneously decreases. When the threshold was set to 3, the ensemble achieved the highest F1 score (86.07%) in subtask 1. For subtask 2, the ensemble obtained an F1 score of 72.48% at the voting threshold of 5.
Attribute Classification Analysis
We applied heuristics to determine the attributes of entities. As the entity-level reference standard in the test set was being withheld, we evaluated the performance of these rule-based methods on the training set.shows the accuracy of the 4 classification tasks with the given reference standard concepts. Accuracy was computed as the percentage of correct predictions among total instances. The accuracy of family member normalization was 94.01%. Our classifier rarely failed to assign normalized terms to some entities. For example, our dictionary did not contain normalized terms for “twin” and “paternal relatives.” Most errors occurred when the normalized term did not match the actual relationship with the patient. For example, although it said “brother” in the text, it sometimes referred to the relationship with the patient’s parents, not the patient himself. The classifier often could not determine the family member as the patient's “Uncle.” This type of error was propagated in family-side decisions because the family-side information should only be provided to first-class relatives.
|Normalization of family members||94.01|
|Determination of the side of family||95.38|
|Assessment of family member’s living status||92.53|
|Detection of negation information for observations||98.06|
In addition to the entity-level assessment described in the previous paragraph, we conducted another document-level evaluation of the entity attributes against the test set. To measure the performance impact of each attribute classification, the system was tested by ignoring one attribute of the entity.shows the results of the 2 subtasks on the test set by the (2018 + 2019)mim system. We report results for living status and negative information only for subtask 2 because they are not considered in subtask 1. A match is made if the system correctly detects an entity while the attribute is ignored. Compared to the default evaluation, which considered all attributes, it led to higher values for all metrics. Ignoring living status scores had the biggest impact. If the living status of every family member was correctly determined, the F1 score could be increased by about 2%. Negative information had the least impact because it only applied to observations and might have been determined more accurately than other attributes.
|System||Precision score||Recall score||F1 score|
|Subtask 1 (entity)|
|Ignoring the side of the family||85.92||89.11||87.49|
|Ignoring the living status||N/Aa||N/Aa||N/Aa|
|Subtask 2 (relation)|
|Ignoring the side of the family||75.33||73.64||74.48|
|Ignoring the living status||75.40||73.78||74.58|
aN/A: not applicable as the living status information was removed from evaluation for subtask 1.
bN/A: not applicable as the negation information was removed from evaluation for subtask 1.
We observed in this study that determining the voting threshold can be challenging for both subtasks. Our results showed that the best performing voting ensemble for one task did not achieve the highest accuracy for the other task. More efficient ensemble approaches will be desired to provide more diversity between individual models and reduce the error rate through optimal control of agreements among them. In the relation extraction task, the negative examples were filtered out when there was a carriage return character between the pairs, because they rarely appeared in the training data (about 2.6%). This instance pruning would make it impossible to find pairs of entities that existed in different sentences but were related. When training new models by combining 2 corpora, we reused the classifier configuration optimized for the 2019 n2c2 model. New development data randomly selected from both corpora would be needed for hyperparameter tuning.
We presented a hybrid method that combined machine learning and rule-based approaches developed as part of the 2019 n2c2/OHNLP track on FH extraction . The MUSC team ranked 3rd and 4th among the participating teams in subtask 1 and subtask 2, respectively. This study demonstrated that our end-to-end pipeline system could successfully extract FH information recorded in unstructured narrative free text. Our experimental results confirmed that the voting ensemble of multiple trials outperformed the individual classifiers that produced nondeterministic results. Our postchallenge efforts significantly improved performance by leveraging additional labeled data and using word vector representations learned from large collections of clinical notes.
Further research includes creating machine learning–based classifiers that will replace rule-based systems that determine the attributes of entities. They could lead to more accurate results on attribute classification as reported in several studies carried out for similar clinical NLP tasks [- ]. Another direction for future work is to exploit unlabeled data to collect texts from the family history section. For efficient extension of the amount of training data, semisupervised learning can be employed with an instance selection method that uses text similarity measures to consider representativeness and diversity [ ].
This research was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (R42CA180190) and the SmartState endowment. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and support of the 2019 n2c2 shared task organizers.
YK and PH made substantial contributions to the design and implementation of the research and to the analysis of the experimental results. All authors drafted the work or revised it critically. YK drafted the initial manuscript. PH and SM provided critical revision of the manuscript. All authors gave final approval of the version to be published. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Conflicts of Interest
- Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast cancer. For the Nurses' Health Study Research Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996 Mar 20;88(6):365-371. [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Guttmacher AE, Collins FS, Carmona RH. The family history--more important than ever. N Engl J Med 2004 Nov 25;351(22):2333-2336. [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, Willett WC. A prospective study of family history and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1994 Dec 22;331(25):1669-1674. [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Askling J, Dickman PW, Karlén P, Broström O, Lapidus A, Löfberg R, et al. Family history as a risk factor for colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2001 May;120(6):1356-1362. [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Polubriaginof F, Tatonetti NP, Vawdrey DK. An Assessment of Family History Information Captured in an Electronic Health Record. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2015;2015:2035-2042 [FREE Full text] [Medline]
- Shen F, Liu S, Fu S, Wang Y, Henry S, Uzuner O, et al. Family History Extraction From Synthetic Clinical Narratives Using Natural Language Processing: Overview and Evaluation of a Challenge Data Set and Solutions for the 2019 National NLP Clinical Challenges (n2c2)/Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) Competition. JMIR Med Inform 2021 Jan 27;9(1):e24008 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Liu S, Rastegar-Mojarad M, Wang Y, Wang L. Overview of the BioCreative/OHNLP 2018 Family History Extraction Task. 2018 Presented at: ACM International Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, and Health Informatics; August 29-September 1, 2018; Washington DC. [CrossRef]
- Grishman R, Sundheim B. Message Understanding Conference-6: A Brief History. In: Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Computational Linguistics - Volume 1. 1996 Presented at: 16th Conference on Computational Linguistics; August 1996; Stroudsburg, PA p. 466-471. [CrossRef]
- Doddington G, Mitchell A, Przybocki M, Ramshaw L, Strassel S, Weischedel R. The Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) Program Tasks, Data, and Evaluation. 2004 Presented at: Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-); May 2004; Lisbon, Portugal.
- Chinchor NA. Overview of MUC-7/MET-2. 1998 Presented at: Seventh Message Understanding Conference (MUC-7); April 29-May 1, 1998; Fairfax, VA.
- McDonald R, Pereira F, Kulick S, Winters S, Jin Y, White P. Simple algorithms for complex relation extraction with applications to biomedical IE. 2005 Presented at: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics; June 2005; Ann Arbor, MI p. 491-498. [CrossRef]
- Friedman C, Alderson PO, Austin JH, Cimino JJ, Johnson SB. A general natural-language text processor for clinical radiology. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1994;1(2):161-174 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Christensen L, Haug P, Fiszman M. MPLUS: A Probabilistic Medical Language Understanding System. 2002 Presented at: ACL-02 Workshop on Natural Language Processing in the Biomedical Domain; July 2002; Philadelphia, PA p. 29-36. [CrossRef]
- Heinze DT, Morsch M, Sheffer R, Jimmink M, Jennings M, Morris W, et al. LifeCode: A deployed application for automated medical coding. AI Magazine 2001;22(2):76. [CrossRef]
- Zeng QT, Goryachev S, Weiss S, Sordo M, Murphy SN, Lazarus R. Extracting principal diagnosis, co-morbidity and smoking status for asthma research: evaluation of a natural language processing system. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2006 Jul 26;6:30 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Savova GK, Masanz JJ, Ogren PV, Zheng J, Sohn S, Kipper-Schuler KC, et al. Mayo clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES): architecture, component evaluation and applications. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2010;17(5):507-513 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Goryachev S, Kim H, Zeng-Treitler Q. Identification and extraction of family history information from clinical reports. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2008 Nov 06:247-251 [FREE Full text] [Medline]
- Bill R, Pakhomov S, Chen ES, Winden TJ, Carter EW, Melton GB. Automated extraction of family history information from clinical notes. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2014;2014:1709-1717 [FREE Full text] [Medline]
- Shi X, Jiang D, Huang Y, Wang X, Chen Q, Yan J, et al. Family history information extraction via deep joint learning. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2019 Dec 27;19(Suppl 10):277 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Hochreiter S, Schmidhuber J. Long short-term memory. Neural Comput 1997 Nov 15;9(8):1735-1780. [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Peters ME, Neumann M, Iyyer M, Gardner M, Clark C, Lee K, et al. Deep contextualized word representations. Association for Computational Linguistics; New Orleans, Louisiana. 2018. URL: https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.05365 [accessed 2021-04-07]
- Bottou L. Online learning and stochastic approximations. In: Saad D, editor. On-line learning in neural networks. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press; 1999:9-42.
- Bird S, Loper E. NLTK: the Natural Language Toolkit. 2004 Presented at: ACL-02 Workshop on Effective tools and methodologies for teaching natural language processing and computational linguistics; July 2004; Barcelona, Spain p. 214-217. [CrossRef]
- Schuster M, Paliwal K. Bidirectional recurrent neural networks. IEEE Trans. Signal Process 1997;45(11):2673-2681. [CrossRef]
- Uzuner O, South BR, Shen S, DuVall SL. 2010 i2b2/VA challenge on concepts, assertions, and relations in clinical text. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2011;18(5):552-556 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Aronson AR, Lang F. An overview of MetaMap: historical perspective and recent advances. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2010;17(3):229-236 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Komninos A, Manandhar S. Dependency based embeddings for sentence classification tasks. 2016 Presented at: 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies; June 2016; San Diego, CA p. 1490-1500. [CrossRef]
- Srivastava N, Hinton G, Krizhevsky A, Sutskever I, Salakhutdinov R. Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting. The Journal of Machine Learning Research 2014;15(1):58. [CrossRef]
- Dozat T. Incorporating nesterov momentum into adam. 2016 Presented at: International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) 2016; May 2-4, 2016; San Juan, Puerto Rico.
- Reimers N, Gurevych I. Reporting Score Distributions Makes a Difference: Performance Study of LSTM-networks for Sequence Tagging. 2017 Presented at: Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing; September 7–11, 2017; Copenhagen, Denmark. [CrossRef]
- Langford J, Li L, Strehl A. Vowpal wabbit online learning project: Technical report. Machine learning and learning theory research. 2007 Dec 21. URL: https://hunch.net/?p=309 [accessed 2019-12-10]
- Shi J, Hurdle JF. Trie-based rule processing for clinical NLP: A use-case study of n-trie, making the ConText algorithm more efficient and scalable. J Biomed Inform 2018 Sep;85:106-113 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Chapman W, Chu D, Dowling J. ConText: An algorithm for identifying contextual features from clinical text. 2007 Presented at: Workshop on BioNLP: Biological, Translational, and Clinical Language Processing; June 2007; Prague, Czech Republic p. 81-88. [CrossRef]
- Bojanowski P, Grave E, Joulin A, Mikolov T. Enriching Word Vectors with Subword Information. TACL 2017 Dec;5:135-146. [CrossRef]
- Johnson AEW, Pollard TJ, Shen L, Lehman LH, Feng M, Ghassemi M, et al. MIMIC-III, a freely accessible critical care database. Sci Data 2016 May 24;3:160035 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Aberdeen J, Bayer S, Yeniterzi R, Wellner B, Clark C, Hanauer D, et al. The MITRE Identification Scrubber Toolkit: design, training, and assessment. Int J Med Inform 2010 Dec;79(12):849-859. [CrossRef] [Medline]
- de Bruijn B, Cherry C, Kiritchenko S, Martin J, Zhu X. Machine-learned solutions for three stages of clinical information extraction: the state of the art at i2b2 2010. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2011;18(5):557-562 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Kim Y, Riloff E, Meystre SM. Improving classification of medical assertions in clinical notes. 2011 Presented at: 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies; June 2011; Portland, OR p. 311-316.
- Bejan CA, Vanderwende L, Xia F, Yetisgen-Yildiz M. Assertion modeling and its role in clinical phenotype identification. J Biomed Inform 2013 Feb;46(1):68-74 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
- Kim Y, Riloff E, Meystre SM. Exploiting Unlabeled Texts with Clustering-based Instance Selection for Medical Relation Classification. In: AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2017 Presented at: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings; Nov 4-Nov 8; Washington, DC p. 1060-1069 URL: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/29854174
|Bi-LSTM: bidirectional long short-term memory|
|EHR: electronic health record|
|ELMo: embeddings from language models|
|FH: family history|
|i2b2: Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside|
|IE: information extraction|
|LSTM: long short-term memory|
|MIMIC: Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care|
|MUSC: Medical University of South Carolina|
|n2c2: National Natural Language Processing Clinical Challenges|
|NER: named entity recognition|
|NLP: natural language processing|
|OGD: online gradient descent|
|OHNLP: Open Health Natural Language Processing|
|UMLS: unified medical language system|
Edited by Y Wang, F Shen; submitted 30.08.20; peer-reviewed by J Zheng, R Abeysinghe, M Torii; comments to author 21.10.20; revised version received 15.12.20; accepted 19.02.21; published 22.04.21Copyright
©Youngjun Kim, Paul M Heider, Isabel RH Lally, Stéphane M Meystre. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (https://medinform.jmir.org), 22.04.2021.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Medical Informatics, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://medinform.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.