Published on in Vol 10, No 2 (2022): February

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Operationalizing and Implementing Pretrained, Large Artificial Intelligence Linguistic Models in the US Health Care System: Outlook of Generative Pretrained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) as a Service Model

Operationalizing and Implementing Pretrained, Large Artificial Intelligence Linguistic Models in the US Health Care System: Outlook of Generative Pretrained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) as a Service Model

Operationalizing and Implementing Pretrained, Large Artificial Intelligence Linguistic Models in the US Health Care System: Outlook of Generative Pretrained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) as a Service Model


  1. Yang Y, Lu Y, Yan W. A comprehensive review on knowledge graphs for complex diseases. Briefings in Bioinformatics 2023;24(1) View
  2. Carpenter K, Altman R. Using GPT-3 to Build a Lexicon of Drugs of Abuse Synonyms for Social Media Pharmacovigilance. Biomolecules 2023;13(2):387 View
  3. Lee J, Yang S, Holland-Hall C, Sezgin E, Gill M, Linwood S, Huang Y, Hoffman J. Prevalence of Sensitive Terms in Clinical Notes Using Natural Language Processing Techniques: Observational Study. JMIR Medical Informatics 2022;10(6):e38482 View
  4. Hirosawa T, Harada Y, Yokose M, Sakamoto T, Kawamura R, Shimizu T. Diagnostic Accuracy of Differential-Diagnosis Lists Generated by Generative Pretrained Transformer 3 Chatbot for Clinical Vignettes with Common Chief Complaints: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2023;20(4):3378 View
  5. Roy K, Gaur M, Soltani M, Rawte V, Kalyan A, Sheth A. ProKnow: Process knowledge for safety constrained and explainable question generation for mental health diagnostic assistance. Frontiers in Big Data 2023;5 View
  6. Sirrianni J, Sezgin E, Claman D, Linwood S. Medical Text Prediction and Suggestion Using Generative Pretrained Transformer Models with Dental Medical Notes. Methods of Information in Medicine 2022;61(05/06):195 View
  7. Goodman R, Patrinely J, Osterman T, Wheless L, Johnson D. On the cusp: Considering the impact of artificial intelligence language models in healthcare. Med 2023;4(3):139 View
  8. Ohki T, Kunii N, Chao Z. Efficient, continual, and generalized learning in the brain – neural mechanism of Mental Schema 2.0 –. Reviews in the Neurosciences 2023;34(8):839 View
  9. Ge J, Lai J. Artificial intelligence-based text generators in hepatology: ChatGPT is just the beginning. Hepatology Communications 2023;7(4) View
  10. Ide K, Hawke P, Nakayama T. Can ChatGPT Be Considered an Author of a Medical Article?. Journal of Epidemiology 2023;33(7):381 View
  11. Byrne M. Generative Artificial Intelligence and ChatGPT. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 2023;38(3):519 View
  12. Heinz M, Bhattacharya S, Trudeau B, Quist R, Song S, Lee C, Jacobson N. Testing domain knowledge and risk of bias of a large-scale general artificial intelligence model in mental health. DIGITAL HEALTH 2023;9:205520762311704 View
  13. Chen S, Loguercio S, Chen K, Lee S, Park J, Liu S, Sadaei H, Torkamani A. Artificial Intelligence for Risk Assessment on Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 2023 View
  14. Singhal K, Azizi S, Tu T, Mahdavi S, Wei J, Chung H, Scales N, Tanwani A, Cole-Lewis H, Pfohl S, Payne P, Seneviratne M, Gamble P, Kelly C, Babiker A, Schärli N, Chowdhery A, Mansfield P, Demner-Fushman D, Agüera y Arcas B, Webster D, Corrado G, Matias Y, Chou K, Gottweis J, Tomasev N, Liu Y, Rajkomar A, Barral J, Semturs C, Karthikesalingam A, Natarajan V. Large language models encode clinical knowledge. Nature 2023;620(7972):172 View
  15. Egli A. ChatGPT, GPT-4, and Other Large Language Models: The Next Revolution for Clinical Microbiology?. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2023;77(9):1322 View
  16. Datta S, Lee K, Paek H, Manion F, Ofoegbu N, Du J, Li Y, Huang L, Wang J, Lin B, Xu H, Wang X. AutoCriteria: a generalizable clinical trial eligibility criteria extraction system powered by large language models. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2023 View
  17. Byrne M. The Disruptive Impacts of Next Generation Generative Artificial Intelligence. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2023;41(7):479 View
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  23. Zheng J, Fischer M. Dynamic prompt-based virtual assistant framework for BIM information search. Automation in Construction 2023;155:105067 View
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Books/Policy Documents

  1. Bonnier T, Bosch B. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. SAFECOMP 2023 Workshops. View
  2. Guan C, Ding D, Gupta P, Hung Y, Jiang Z. Exploring Cyber Criminals and Data Privacy Measures. View