JMIR Publications

JMIR Medical Informatics

Clinical informatics, decision support for health professionals, electronic health records, and ehealth infrastructures.

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Journal Description

JMIR Medical Informatics (JMI, ISSN 2291-9694) is a top-rated, tier A journal which focuses on clinical informatics, big data in health and health care, decision support for health professionals, electronic health records, ehealth infrastructures and implementation. It has a focus on applied, translational research, with a broad readership including clinicians, CIOs, engineers, industry and health informatics professionals.

Published by JMIR Publications, publisher of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), the leading eHealth/mHealth journal (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175), JMIR Med Inform has a slightly different scope (emphasizing more on applications for clinicians and health professionals rather than consumers/citizens, which is the focus of JMIR), publishes even faster, and also allows papers which are more technical or more formative than what would be published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research.

JMIR Medical Informatics journal features a rapid and thorough peer-review process, professional copyediting, professional production of PDF, XHTML, and XML proofs (ready for deposit in PubMed Central/PubMed). The site is optimized for mobile and iPad use.

JMIR Medical Informatics adheres to the same quality standards as JMIR and all articles published here are also cross-listed in the Table of Contents of JMIR, the worlds' leading medical journal in health sciences / health services research and health informatics (http://www.jmir.org/issue/current).

 

Recent Articles:

  • Health eRIDE Facebook page (montage). Source: Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc. / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://medinform.jmir.org/2017/4/e40/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Pain Self-Management for Veterans: Development and Pilot Test of a Stage-Based Mobile-Optimized Intervention

    Abstract:

    Background: Chronic pain is a significant public health burden affecting more Americans than cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. Veterans are disproportionately affected by chronic pain. Among previously deployed soldiers and veterans, the prevalence of chronic pain is estimated between 44% and 60%. Objective: The objective of this research was to develop and pilot-test Health eRide: Your Journey to Managing Pain, a mobile pain self-management program for chronic musculoskeletal pain for veterans. Based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change, the intervention is tailored to veterans’ stage of change for adopting healthy strategies for pain self-management and their preferred strategies. It also addresses stress management and healthy sleep, two components of promising integrated treatments for veterans with pain and co-occurring conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury. In addition, Health eRide leverages gaming principles, text messaging (short message service, SMS), and social networking to increase engagement and retention. Methods: Pilot test participants were 69 veterans recruited in-person and by mail at a Veterans Health Administration facility, by community outreach, and by a Web-based survey company. Participants completed a mobile-delivered baseline assessment and Health eRide intervention session. During the next 30 days, they had access to a Personal Activity Center with additional stage-matched activities and information and had the option of receiving tailored text messages. Pre-post assessments, administered at baseline and the 30-day follow-up, included measures of pain, pain impact, use of pain self-management strategies, PTSD, and percentage in the Action or Maintenance stage for adopting pain self-management, managing stress, and practicing healthy sleep habits. Global impressions of change and program acceptability and usability were also assessed at follow-up. Results: Among the 44 veterans who completed the 30-day post assessment, there were statistically significant pre-post reductions in pain (P<.001) and pain impact (P<.001); there was some reduction in symptoms of PTSD (P=.05). There were significant pre-post increases in the percentage of participants in the Action or Maintenance stage for adopting pain self-management (P=.01) and for managing stress (P<.001) but not for practicing healthy sleep habits (P=.11). The global impressions of change measure showed that a majority had experienced some level of improvement. User ratings of acceptability were quite high; ratings of usability fell slightly below the mean for digital programs. Conclusions: Preliminary data demonstrate the potential impact of the Health eRide program for chronic musculoskeletal pain for veterans. The results underscore that simultaneously addressing other behaviors may be a promising approach to managing pain and comorbid conditions. Additional formative research is required to complete development of the Health eRide program and to address areas of usability requiring improvement. A randomized trial with longer follow-up is needed to demonstrate the program’s long-term effects on pain and pain self-management.

  • Explanation of the patient health records system (ontage). Source: CDC / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://medinform.jmir.org/2017/4/e38/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Patient Portal Use and Experience Among Older Adults: Systematic Review

    Abstract:

    Background: The older adult population (65 years or older) in the United States is growing, and it is important for communities to consider ways to support the aging population. Patient portals and electronic personal health records (ePHRs) are technologies that could better serve populations with the highest health care needs, such as older adults. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the existing research landscape related to patient portal and ePHR use and experience among older adults and to understand the benefits and barriers to older adults’ use and adoption of patient portals and ePHRs. Methods: We searched six pertinent bibliographic databases for papers, published from 2006 to 2016 and written in English, that focused on adults 60 years or older and their use of or experience with patient portals or ePHRs. We adapted preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to review papers based on exclusion and inclusion criteria. We then applied thematic analysis to identify key themes around use, experience, and adoption. Results: We retrieved 199 papers after an initial screening and removal of duplicate papers. Then we applied an inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in a final set of 17 papers that focused on 15 separate projects. The majority of papers described studies involving qualitative research, including interviews and focus groups. They looked at the experience and use of ePHRs and patient portals. Overall, we found 2 main barriers to use: (1) privacy and security and (2) access to and ability to use technology and the Internet. We found 2 facilitators: (1) technical assistance and (2) family and provider advice. We also reported on older adults’ experience, including satisfaction with the system and improvement of the quality of their health care. Several studies captured features that older adults wanted from these systems such as further assistance managing health-related tasks and contextual health advice and tips. Conclusions: More research is needed to better understand the patient portal experience among older adults from initial use to adoption. There are also opportunities to explore the role of design in addressing barriers and supporting facilitators to patient portal and ePHR use. Finally, the future use of these systems by older adults should be anticipated and considered in the design process.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: StartupStockPhotos; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/entrepreneur-startup-start-up-man-593352/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Predicting Consumer Effort in Finding and Paying for Health Care: Expert Interviews and Claims Data Analysis

    Abstract:

    Background: For consumers to accept and use a health care information system, it must be easy to use, and the consumer must perceive it as being free from effort. Finding health care providers and paying for care are tasks that must be done to access treatment. These tasks require effort on the part of the consumer and can be frustrating when the goal of the consumer is primarily to receive treatments for better health. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factors that result in consumer effort when finding accessible health care. Having an understanding of these factors will help define requirements when designing health information systems. Methods: A panel of 12 subject matter experts was consulted and the data from 60 million medical claims were used to determine the factors contributing to effort. Results: Approximately 60 million claims were processed by the health care insurance organization in a 12-month duration with the population defined. Over 292 million diagnoses from claims were used to validate the panel input. The results of the study showed that the number of people in the consumer’s household, number of visits to providers outside the consumer’s insurance network, number of adjusted and denied medical claims, and number of consumer inquiries are a proxy for the level of effort in finding and paying for care. The effort level, so measured and weighted per expert panel recommendations, differed by diagnosis. Conclusions: This study provides an understanding of how consumers must put forth effort when engaging with a health care system to access care. For higher satisfaction and acceptance results, health care payers ideally will design and develop systems that facilitate an understanding of how to avoid denied claims, educate on the payment of claims to avoid adjustments, and quickly find providers of affordable care.

  • Source: Stokpic; Copyright: Ed Gregory; URL: http://stokpic.com/project/casual-business-woman-typing-on-laptop-whilst-in-bed/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Characteristics of Innovators Adopting a National Personal Health Record in Portugal: Cross-Sectional Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Personal health records (PHRs) are increasingly being deployed worldwide, but their rates of adoption by patients vary widely across countries and health systems. Five main categories of adopters are usually considered when evaluating the diffusion of innovations: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. Objective: We aimed to evaluate adoption of the Portuguese PHR 3 months after its release, as well as characterize the individuals who registered and used the system during that period (the innovators). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. Users and nonusers were defined based on their input, or not, of health-related information into the PHR. Users of the PHR were compared with nonusers regarding demographic and clinical variables. Users were further characterized according to their intensity of information input: single input (one single piece of health-related information recorded) and multiple inputs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the probability of being in the multiple inputs group. ArcGis (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) was used to create maps of the proportion of PHR registrations by region and district. Results: The number of registered individuals was 109,619 (66,408/109,619, 60.58% women; mean age: 44.7 years, standard deviation [SD] 18.1 years). The highest proportion of registrations was observed for those aged between 30 and 39 years (25,810/109,619, 23.55%). Furthermore, 16.88% (18,504/109,619) of registered individuals were considered users and 83.12% (91,115/109,619) nonusers. Among PHR users, 32.18% (5955/18,504) engaged in single input and 67.82% (12,549/18,504) in multiple inputs. Younger individuals and male users had higher odds of engaging in multiple inputs (odds ratio for male individuals 1.32, CI 1.19-1.48). Geographic analysis revealed higher proportions of PHR adoption in urban centers when compared with rural noncoastal districts. Conclusions: Approximately 1% of the country’s population registered during the first 3 months of the Portuguese PHR. Registered individuals were more frequently female aged between 30 and 39 years. There is evidence of a geographic gap in the adoption of the Portuguese PHR, with higher proportions of adopters in urban centers than in rural noncoastal districts.

  • Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: CDC; URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Doctor_discussing_diagnosis_with_patient.tiff; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Computerized Decision Aids for Shared Decision Making in Serious Illness: Systematic Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Shared decision making (SDM) is important in achieving patient-centered care. SDM tools such as decision aids are intended to inform the patient. When used to assist in decision making between treatments, decision aids have been shown to reduce decisional conflict, increase ease of decision making, and increase modification of previous decisions. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the impact of computerized decision aids on patient-centered outcomes related to SDM for seriously ill patients. Methods: PubMed and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the impact of computerized decision aids on patient-centered outcomes and SDM in serious illness. Six RCTs were identified and data were extracted on study population, design, and results. Risk of bias was assessed by a modified Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for Quality Assessment of Randomized Controlled Trials. Results: Six RCTs tested decision tools in varying serious illnesses. Three studies compared different computerized decision aids against each other and a control. All but one study demonstrated improvement in at least one patient-centered outcome. Computerized decision tools may reduce unnecessary treatment in patients with low disease severity in comparison with informational pamphlets. Additionally, electronic health record (EHR) portals may provide the opportunity to manage care from the home for individuals affected by illness. The quality of decision aids is of great importance. Furthermore, satisfaction with the use of tools is associated with increased patient satisfaction and reduced decisional conflict. Finally, patients may benefit from computerized decision tools without the need for increased physician involvement. Conclusions: Most computerized decision aids improved at least one patient-centered outcome. All RCTs identified were at a High Risk of Bias or Unclear Risk of Bias. Effort should be made to improve the quality of RCTs testing SDM aids in serious illness.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Wokandapix; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/search-internet-online-web-browser-2041815/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Expert Search Strategies: The Information Retrieval Practices of Healthcare Information Professionals

    Abstract:

    Background: Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare information professionals, uncovering their needs, goals, and requirements for information retrieval systems. Methods: A survey was distributed to healthcare information professionals via professional association email discussion lists. It investigated the search tasks they undertake, their techniques for search strategy formulation, their approaches to evaluating search results, and their preferred functionality for searching library-style databases. The popular literature search system PubMed was then evaluated to determine the extent to which their needs were met. Results: The 107 respondents indicated that their information retrieval process relied on the use of complex, repeatable, and transparent search strategies. On average it took 60 minutes to formulate a search strategy, with a search task taking 4 hours and consisting of 15 strategy lines. Respondents reviewed a median of 175 results per search task, far more than they would ideally like (100). The most desired features of a search system were merging search queries and combining search results. Conclusions: Healthcare information professionals routinely address some of the most challenging information retrieval problems of any profession. However, their needs are not fully supported by current literature search systems and there is demand for improved functionality, in particular regarding the development and management of search strategies.

  • Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: Sigismund von Dobschütz; URL: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Tablet-PC_Parkwohnstift_05.JPG; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Impact of Electronic Health Records on Long-Term Care Facilities: Systematic Review

    Abstract:

    Background: Long-term care (LTC) facilities are an important part of the health care industry, providing care to the fastest-growing group of the population. However, the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) in LTC facilities lags behind other areas of the health care industry. One of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoption in the United States is that LTC facilities are not eligible for incentives under the Meaningful Use program. Implementation of an EHR system in an LTC facility can potentially enhance the quality of care, provided it is appropriately implemented, used, and maintained. Unfortunately, the lag in adoption of the EHR in LTC creates a paucity of literature on the benefits of EHR implementation in LTC facilities. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to identify the potential benefits of implementing an EHR system in LTC facilities. The study also aims to identify the common conditions and EHR features that received favorable remarks from providers and the discrepancies that needed improvement to build up momentum across LTC settings in adopting this technology. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and MEDLINE databases. Papers were analyzed by multiple referees to filter out studies not germane to our research objective. A final sample of 28 papers was selected to be included in the systematic review. Results: Results of this systematic review conclude that EHRs show significant improvement in the management of documentation in LTC facilities and enhanced quality outcomes. Approximately 43% (12/28) of the papers reported a mixed impact of EHRs on the management of documentation, and 33% (9/28) of papers reported positive quality outcomes using EHRs. Surprisingly, very few papers demonstrated an impact on patient satisfaction, physician satisfaction, the length of stay, and productivity using EHRs. Conclusions: Overall, implementation of EHRs has been found to be effective in the few LTC facilities that have implemented them. Implementation of EHRs in LTC facilities caused improved management of clinical documentation that enabled better decision making.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Katie Faber; URL: https://flic.kr/p/pDxLz9; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    An Ontology to Improve Transparency in Case Definition and Increase Case Finding of Infectious Intestinal Disease: Database Study in English General Practice

    Abstract:

    Background: Infectious intestinal disease (IID) has considerable health impact; there are 2 billion cases worldwide resulting in 1 million deaths and 78.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Reported IID incidence rates vary and this is partly because terms such as “diarrheal disease” and “acute infectious gastroenteritis” are used interchangeably. Ontologies provide a method of transparently comparing case definitions and disease incidence rates. Objective: This study sought to show how differences in case definition in part account for variation in incidence estimates for IID and how an ontological approach provides greater transparency to IID case finding. Methods: We compared three IID case definitions: (1) Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) definition based on mapping to the Ninth International Classification of Disease (ICD-9), (2) newer ICD-10 definition, and (3) ontological case definition. We calculated incidence rates and examined the contribution of four supporting concepts related to IID: symptoms, investigations, process of care (eg, notification to public health authorities), and therapies. We created a formal ontology using ontology Web language. Results: The ontological approach identified 5712 more cases of IID than the ICD-10 definition and 4482 more than the RCGP RSC definition from an initial cohort of 1,120,490. Weekly incidence using the ontological definition was 17.93/100,000 (95% CI 15.63-20.41), whereas for the ICD-10 definition the rate was 8.13/100,000 (95% CI 6.70-9.87), and for the RSC definition the rate was 10.24/100,000 (95% CI 8.55-12.12). Codes from the four supporting concepts were generally consistent across our three IID case definitions: 37.38% (3905/10,448) (95% CI 36.16-38.5) for the ontological definition, 38.33% (2287/5966) (95% CI 36.79-39.93) for the RSC definition, and 40.82% (1933/4736) (95% CI 39.03-42.66) for the ICD-10 definition. The proportion of laboratory results associated with a positive test result was 19.68% (546/2775). Conclusions: The standard RCGP RSC definition of IID, and its mapping to ICD-10, underestimates disease incidence. The ontological approach identified a larger proportion of new IID cases; the ontology divides contributory elements and enables transparency and comparison of rates. Results illustrate how improved diagnostic coding of IID combined with an ontological approach to case definition would provide a clearer picture of IID in the community, better inform GPs and public health services about circulating disease, and empower them to respond. We need to improve the Pathology Bounded Code List (PBCL) currently used by laboratories to electronically report results. Given advances in stool microbiology testing with a move to nonculture, PCR-based methods, the way microbiology results are reported and coded via PBCL needs to be reviewed and modernized.

  • Patient and nurse interaction. Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: Bill Branson; URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nurse%E2%80%93client_relationship#/media/File:Nurse_with_patient.jpg; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    A Roadmap for Optimizing Asthma Care Management via Computational Approaches

    Abstract:

    Asthma affects 9% of Americans and incurs US $56 billion in cost, 439,000 hospitalizations, and 1.8 million emergency room visits annually. A small fraction of asthma patients with high vulnerabilities, severe disease, or great barriers to care consume most health care costs and resources. An effective approach is urgently needed to identify high-risk patients and intervene to improve outcomes and to reduce costs and resource use. Care management is widely used to implement tailored care plans for this purpose, but it is expensive and has limited service capacity. To maximize benefit, we should enroll only patients anticipated to have the highest costs or worst prognosis. Effective care management requires correctly identifying high-risk patients, but current patient identification approaches have major limitations. This paper pinpoints these limitations and outlines multiple machine learning techniques to address them, providing a roadmap for future research.

  • Example of initial simulation setup for scribe workflow. In this case, the subject is an author (MH) and former scribe. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL: http://medinform.jmir.org/2017/3/e30/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Use of Simulation Based on an Electronic Health Records Environment to Evaluate the Structure and Accuracy of Notes Generated by Medical Scribes:...

    Abstract:

    Background: The increasing adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) has been associated with a number of unintended negative consequences with provider efficiency and job satisfaction. To address this, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of medical scribes to perform many of the required EHR functions. Despite this rapid growth, little has been published on the training or assessment tools to appraise the safety and efficacy of scribe-related EHR activities. Given the number of reports documenting that other professional groups suffer from a number of performance errors in EHR interface and data gathering, scribes likely face similar challenges. This highlights the need for new assessment tools for medical scribes. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a virtual video-based simulation to demonstrate and quantify the variability and accuracy of scribes’ transcribed notes in the EHR. Methods: From a pool of 8 scribes in one department, a total of 5 female scribes, intent on pursuing careers in health care, with at least 6 months of experience were recruited for our simulation study. We created three simulated patient-provider scenarios. Each scenario contained a corresponding medical record in our simulation instance of our EHR. For each scenario, we video-recorded a standardized patient-provider encounter. Five scribes with at least 6 months of experience both with our EHR and in the specialty of the simulated cases were recruited. Each scribe watched the simulated encounter and transcribed notes into a simulated EHR environment. Transcribed notes were evaluated for interscribe variability and compared with a gold standard for accuracy. Results: All scribes completed all simulated cases. There was significant interscribe variability in note structure and content. Overall, only 26% of all data elements were unique to the scribe writing them. The term data element was used to define the individual pieces of data that scribes perceived from the simulation. Note length was determined by counting the number of words varied by 31%, 37%, and 57% between longest and shortest note between the three cases, and word economy ranged between 23% and 71%. Overall, there was a wide inter- and intrascribe variation in accuracy for each section of the notes with ranges from 50% to 76%, resulting in an overall positive predictive value for each note between 38% and 81%. Conclusions: We created a high-fidelity, video-based EHR simulation, capable of assessing multiple performance indicators in medical scribes. In this cohort, we demonstrate significant variability both in terms of structure and accuracy in clinical documentation. This form of simulation can provide a valuable tool for future development of scribe curriculum and assessment of competency.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Free-Photos; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/hand-nail-pointing-fingers-screen-692113/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    System-Wide Inpatient Portal
 Implementation: Survey of Health Care Team Perceptions

    Abstract:

    Background: Inpatient portals, a new type of patient portal tailored specifically to the hospital setting, can allow patients to access up-to-date health information and exchange secure communications with their care team. As such, inpatient portals present an opportunity for patients to increase engagement in their care during a time of acute crisis that emphasizes focus on a patient’s health. While there is a large body of research on patient portals in the outpatient setting, questions are being raised specifically about inpatient portals, such as how they will be incorporated into the flow of patient care in hectic, stressed, team-based hospital settings. Objective: Our aim is to improve understanding about hospital care team members’ perceptions of the value of an interactive patient portal for admitted patients, as well as to ascertain staff orientation toward this new technology. Methods: Throughout the course of 2016, an inpatient portal, MyChart Bedside (MCB) was implemented across a five-hospital health system. The portal is a tablet-based app that includes a daily schedule, lab/test results, secure messaging with the care team, a place to take notes, and access to educational materials. Within a month of initial rollout, hospital care team members completed a 5-minute, anonymous online survey to assess attitudes and perceptions about MCB use and staff training for the new technology. Results: Throughout the health system, 686 staff members completed the survey: 193 physicians (23.6%), 439 nurses (53.7%), and 186 support staff (22.7%). Questions about the importance of MCB, self-efficacy in using MCB with patients, and feelings about sufficient training and resources showed that an average of 40-60% of respondents in each group reported a positive orientation toward the MCB technology and training received. This positive orientation was highest among support staff, lower among nurses, and lowest for physicians (all differences by staff role were statistically significant at P<.001). Additionally, 62.0% of respondents reported “not enough” training. Conclusions: Despite the robust training effort, similar to that used in previous health information technology implementations at this health system, hospital care team members reported only a moderately positive orientation toward MCB and its potential, and the majority wanted more training. We propose that due to the unique elements of the inpatient portal—interactive features used by patients and providers requiring explanation and collaboration—traditional training approaches may be insufficient. Introduction of the inpatient portal as a new collaborative tool may thus require new methods of training to support enhanced engagement between patients and their care team.

  • Ophthalmology web form (montage). Source: The Authors / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://medinform.jmir.org/2017/3/e27/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application

    Abstract:

    Background: The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Methods: Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. Results: The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. Conclusions: This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities.

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