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Previously submitted to: JMIR Medical Informatics (no longer under consideration since Oct 16, 2019)

Date Submitted: Jul 28, 2019
Open Peer Review Period: Aug 1, 2019 - Sep 26, 2019
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Programming Codes for Visualizing Medical Information on Google Maps using the Kano Model: Feasibility Study

  • Shu-Chun Kuo; 
  • Tsair-Wei Chien; 
  • Willy Chou; 



The Kano Model of user satisfaction is a popular survey-based method used by product designers to prioritize the inclusion and implementation of features according to users’ requirements. Despite the simplicity of using and interpreting the Kano approach, the method has two major drawbacks. These are (1) that it can be tedious to draw the plot; and (2) that it can be cumbersome to categorize products or items. These categories have been applied in various fields, including healthcare settings, but all refer to the original articles Kano wrote in 1984.


The paper provides a quantitative analysis of Kano’s model with the goal of helping programmers develop a better understanding of customer or patient needs.


We present complete program codes using visual basic in MS Excel for applications. The rapid computation and visualization of Kano data were introduced based on the modeling approach proposed by previous studies. Two examples were illustrated: (1) 2008 inpatient survey data from the Picker Institute Europe website for displaying the satisfaction and efforts to implement 70 items; and (2) citations from PubMed Central for 15 JMIR journal series in 2017 and 2018. We used an author-made Excel program that can (1) draw the plot; (2) categorize products or items according to the Kano Model; and (3) emulate a dashboard for the Google Cloud platform shown on Google Maps.


Implementing the proposed Kano approach resulted in identification of two items in the must-have quality category: (1) How long was the delay? (2) During your time in the hospital, did you feel well looked after by hospital staff? In 15 JMIR journal series, only JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol shows an attractive quality based on the x-index in the bibliometric analysis. The other 14 journals are attributable to a one-dimensional quality. The J Med Internet Res journal earned the highest x-index (= 31.46), followed by JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, with x = 22.52.


We demonstrate that the Kano Model’s proposed approach can be implemented in healthcare settings. We provide a detailed review of the code with a sample dataset for the readership. The code is encapsulated using a simple routine that substantially decreases the time required to evaluate the Kano data, speeding up its application in the context of product or item development. Clinical Trial: Not available


Please cite as:

Kuo S, Chien T, Chou W

Programming Codes for Visualizing Medical Information on Google Maps using the Kano Model: Feasibility Study

JMIR Preprints. 28/07/2019:15673

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.15673


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